Body Composition Analysis

Body composition analysis is the clinical assessment of tissue and fluid compartments in the human body. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) measures body composition electronically and is used in preventative, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. A normal distribution of tissue and fluid in the body is associated with immunity, high function, and longevity, while an abnormal distribution of tissue and fluid in the body is associated with susceptibility, low function, and the effects of disease and aging. The human body is bioelectric and this analysis measures our vitality at a cellular level.

 

A progressive increase in lean body mass, body cell mass, and phase angle are associated with increasing physical performance. With the use of the BIA to monitor key indicators of health and fitness, healthcare practitioners can develop, monitor and manage diet, nutrition, and exercise programs that lead to improved overall physical condition.

Understanding Your Results
  • Fat Mass & Fat-Free Mass

    • Fat-free mass, also referred to as lean body mass, is the total amount of nonfat (lean) parts of the body. It consists of approximately 73% water, 20% protein, 6% mineral. Lean body mass contains virtually all the body’s water, metabolically active tissues and bone, and is the source of all metabolic caloric expenditure. Lean body mass is further divided into body cell mass (BCM) and extracellular mass (ECM).

    • Fat mass is all the extractable lipids from adipose and other tissue in the body. It is the total amount of stored lipids (fats) in the body and consists of subcutaneous fat and visceral fat. Subcutaneous fat is located directly beneath the skin and serves as an energy reserve and as insulation against outside cold. Visceral fat is located deeper within the body and serves as an energy reserve and as a cushion between organs. Everyone needs a certain amount of fat in their body. The ideal fat % is dependent on age and gender.

  • Energy

    • Caloric Expediture

      • ​This is the estimated number of calories you metabolize throughout the day.

    • Basal Metabolic Rate

      • This is the estimated number of calories consumed and metabolized at a normal resting state over a 24 hour period. For a typical person, BMR accounts for more than 90% of their total daily expenditure — more than 90% of calories are burned while the person is at rest.

      • The basal metabolic rate is determined by lean body mass since only lean body mass metabolizes. The greater the individual's lean body mass, the greater the rate of caloric expenditure. One of the main benefits of exercise is the maintenance of lean body mass.

    • Recommended Energy Intake

      • Energy requirements and recommended levels of intake are often referred to as daily requirements or recommended daily intakes. These terms are used as a matter of convention and convenience, indicating that the requirement represents an average of energy needs over a certain number of days, and that the recommended energy intake is the amount of energy that should be ingested as a daily average over a certain period of time. There is no implication that exactly this amount of energy must be consumed every day, nor that the requirement and recommended intake are constant, day after day. Neither is there any biological basis for defining the number of days over which the requirement or intake must be averaged. As a matter of convenience, taking into account that physical activity and eating habits may vary on some days of the week, periods of seven days are often used when estimating the average daily energy expenditure and recommended daily intake.

  • Fluid Levels

    • Total Body Water

      • Water is contained in lean body mass. Total body water consists of two compartments — intracellular water (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW). It is the amount of water contained in the body and is a measure for evaluating basic hydration status.

    • Extracellular Water

      • ​​This is a measure of the amount of water outside the cells. This water stores some nutrients and also helps to remove waste from inside the cell. As a general rule, 1/3 of your water should be outside the cell.

    • Hydration Percentage

      • This is the percentage of lean body mass that is water. Normally about 73% of fat-free mass is water.

  • Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis

    • Resistance

      • Resistance is the ratio of electrical potential to the current in a material. A material with low resistance conducts well whilst a material with high resistance conducts poorly. The primary conductor in the human body is water. In the human body, a low resistance is associated with large amounts of lean body mass. A high resistance is associated with smaller or low amounts of lean body mass.

      • Resistance helps to calculate the amount of water in the body. Low resistance, indicating high conductivity, is due to large amounts of water in the body. Resistance in the body is proportional to the amount of lean body mass since water is contained solely within lean body mass.

    • Reactance

      • Reactance is a measure of the cells’ ability to store energy. A body that stores energy easily has high reactance and a body that stores energy poorly has low reactance. Energy is stored in the cell membrane therefore this reading gives an indication of the amount of intact cell membranes in the body. Since intact cellular membranes are contained primarily within body cell mass, the reactance of the body is proportional to the amount of body cell mass. The reactance helps to calculate the proportion of the body that is metabolically active.

  • Phase Angle

    • Phase angle is an indicator of cellular health and integrity. Research on humans has shown that the relationship between phase angle and cellular health is increasing and nearly linear. A low phase angle is consistent with an inability of cells to store energy and an indication of breakdown in the selective permeability of cellular membranes. Cell membranes have a high lipid content therefore this reading gives an indication of your cell lipid status. A high phase angle is consistent with large quantities of intact, healthy cell membranes and body cell mass.

    • Phase angles for adults range from 3 – 10 degrees, with normal values of 6 to 8 degrees. A phase angle of 5' or lower can indicate a serious energy deficiency. A phase angle higher than 8' is excellent.

       

Conducted using the seca mBCA through Bioelectrical Impedance

© 2015 by Trubody Biometrix, LLC

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